The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentrationor blood glucose level is the concentration of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day, and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimoles. Blood sugar levels outside the normal range may be an indicator of a medical condition.
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Blood glucose, or blood sugar, is produced from carbohydrates in the diet to supply the cells throughout the body with energy. Normally, the body regulates blood glucose levels so there's always enough to fuel cells but not so much that the bloodstream is overloaded with sugar, which could cause significant damage. For people with diabetes, the balancing of blood glucose levels is thrown off due to problems with insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps keep blood glucose levels steady and stable.
Glucose is the key metabolic substrate for tissue energy production. Just after birth, for the first few hours of life in a normal term neonate appropriate for gestational age, blood glucose levels can range between 1. Normal blood glucose levels are maintained within this narrow range by factors which control glucose production and glucose utilisation. The key hormones which regulate glucose homoeostasis include insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and growth hormone.
Here are the normal blood sugar ranges for a person without diabetes according to the American Diabetes Association :. According to the American Diabetes Associationthe following blood sugar and A1c results are used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:. For many, symptoms come on so quickly they are dismissed as the lingering flu or another seemingly ordinary virus.
HbA1c Normal for person without diabetes: Less than 5. Source: American Diabetes Association. Unfortunately, though, not everyone is given glucose goals.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often appear suddenly and are often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. Because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or may not be evident, the American Diabetes Association ADA has recommended screening guidelines. The ADA recommends that the following people be screened for diabetes:. Glycated hemoglobin A1C test.
Testosterone levels are decreased in diabetic patients and recent studies have suggested that high-normal fasting glucose is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To further elucidate the relationship between plasma glucose and testosterone, we investigated the association between fasting plasma glucose FPG and endogenous sex hormones serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, and the ratio of testosterone to estradiol in non-diabetic and pre-diabetic men. The subjects were divided into quartiles based on their FPG levels and correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed.